Promotions are often run without quantitative knowledge of whether the action correlates with the desired result. Further, there is a gap in using correlations to understand the cost to achieve or exceed targets. Finally, what are the external indicators that correlate with and lead demand to optimizing price and inventory planning.
For example, a car promotion was run all year round but a correlative analysis revealed in was only effective to increase retail sales in the second half of the year. Then, a CPG manufacturer believed unemployment was a 3 month leading indicator to sales. True, but a detailed correlation revealed only for specific retail stores.